Climate-Smart Agriculture for Climate-Resilient Livelihoods (CSARL)
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Lynn Kota -


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PDF icon eSwatini Country Fact Sheet

Being an integral part of the Resilient Food Systems programme, CSARL will contribute to the collective impact of this programme, which is intended to inform approaches to food security in the drylands of sub-saharan Africa towards win-win solutions between food production and maintaining ecosystem services in the face of anticipated climate shocks.



The CSARL project aims to enhance the food and nutrition security, as well as promote the livelihoods of smallholder farmers through diversified, climate-resilient agricultural production practices and associated market linkages.

GEF Grant US $7.2M
Co-Financing US $48M


The main drivers of degradation in Eswatini are increasing human population, soil nutrient mining within farmlands, growing livestock populations on communally grazed rangelands, land tenure arrangements and deforestation, and climate change. This has led to an undermining of the resource base, loss of biodiversity and reduction in ecosystem services that are fundamental to improved production, thereby contributing to impoverished rural livelihoods. To address the interconnected challenges of rural poverty, food insecurity and environmental degradation, the Government of Eswatini through the IAP programme aims to introduce a paradigm shift toward integrated, multistakeholder development planning at the local level, where land, water and other natural resources are sustainably managed and harnessed as a driver of growth. The proposed CSARL project will be closely associated with IFAD’s Smallholder Market-Led Programme, which will strengthen market linkages and promote the scaling-up of the resilient and sustainable agricultural production practices and approaches introduced through GEF financing.


Land under integrated and sustainable management (M ha.) 30,000
GHG emissions avoided or reduced (CO2e) 1,300,000
Genetic diversity of crops and animals maintained or increased (%) N/A
Land cover (increase, %) TBD


The project is structured around three principal components, seeking to (i) promote integrated, multi-stakeholder development planning processes in 37 chiefdoms; (ii) scale-up sustainable land and water management practices; and (iii) strengthen capacities at the national and sub-national levels to monitor ecosystem services and resilience, and to carry out associated knowledge sharing and reporting activities. Cross-cutting aspects related to value chains, capacity building and knowledge management will be further strengthened through direct support from the regional “Hub” project.


The Ministry of Finance will provide oversight and liaise with IFAD and GEF throughout implementation. Major stakeholders at a national level include the Ministry of Agriculture, Swaziland Water and Agriculture Development Enterprise, Swaziland Environment Authority and the Swaziland Meteorological Service. The Rural Development Areas, local NGOs, and the Inkhundla (Parliamentary Constituency) will play a key role in activities at the chiefdom level. The project will directly engage more than 90,000 people as beneficiaries.


The proposed child project is consistent with the overall goal and theory of change of the food security IAP, and draws on IFAD's experience of similar projects in Eswatini. Significant investments in the direct implementation of sustainable land and water management, as well as the monitoring of ecosystem services and resilience in agricultural production systems and the wider landscapes, will ensure the project contributes to the evidence base for integrated approaches to addressing food security nationally.


Chiefdom development planning process institutionalised in three of the four regions in the project area:

37 Community Development Plans created. Chiefdom human, water and land resources allocated to planned development activities

Sustainable land management applied at multiple scales across 37 Chiefdoms in three regions:

31,450 hectares of land with rehabilitated or restored ecosystem services. 12,000 households supported in coping with the effect of climate change.

National capacity to monitor and refine sustainable land management policies and programmes to achieve convention targets:

98 professionals trained by the project in SLWM monitoring, SLWM planning or SLWM techniques.