Smallholder farming is the mainstay of Ethiopia’s economy across the six regions in which this project will be implemented. Farming takes place in often highly degraded and vulnerable environments where there is a substantial loss of vegetation, associated erosion and declining soil fertility. Huge demand for biomass fuels exacerbates environmental degradation and affects food production. As a result of these occurrences, Ethiopia proposes to enhance long term sustainability and resilience of the food production systems by addressing the environmental drivers of food insecurity. Ethiopia is also recognized as a “center of origin” and/or diversity for many crops of global importance, including Arabica coffee, tef, enset, sorghum and durum wheat, among others. Through the IAP programme, six regions – Amhara, SNNP, Oromiya, Tigray, Afar and Somali – embedded in two of the global biodiversity hotspots (Eastern Afromontane and Horn of Africa) will be targeted. Support through the IAP programme will, therefore, promote the adoption of production practices that increase the resilience of ecosystems (e.g. watersheds and rangelands) and their ability to function (e.g. increased soil carbon, carbon sequestration) and provide ecosystem goods and services.